Par3 controls neural crest migration by promoting microtubule. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of xenopus. Horizon 23 trout pellets fed 23 times per day, a few pellets each. Her books include the other side, each kindness, caldecott honor book coming on home soon. Xenbase is a model organism database that provides centralized access to this information, including gene function data from highthroughput screens and the scientific literature. Its early development closely resembles that of its wellunderstood relative x. One of the model systems with important contributions is xenopus laevis, the african clawed frog, a pseudotetraploid vertebrate which lives in. Xenopus tropicalis was introduced as a model system for genetic, and then genomic research, in the early 1990s, complementing work on the widely used model organism xenopus laevis. Xenopus tropicalis, also known as silurana tropicalis or the western clawed frog, is a small, wholly aquatic frog that is found in the countries that lie along the west coast of equatorial africa from gabon to sierra leone. The xenopus anatomy ontology xao represents the anatomy and development of the african frogs xenopus laevis and tropicalis. Sep 25, 2008 the frogs xenopus laevis and xenopus silurana tropicalis are model systems that have produced a wealth of genetic, genomic, and developmental information.
A gynogenetic screen to isolate naturally occurring recessive. Our analyses show that locomotion is thermally sensitive, as illustrated by. Genes controlling and mediating locomotion behaviour of the zebrafish embryo and larva. Here we use the tropical clawed frog, xenopus tropicalis, as a model system to explore. This is the first amphibian genome to be sequenced, enabling new insights into vertebrate evolution and the last common ancestor of tetrapods. All frogs may be given occasional supplements of lambs heart,cut to appropriate size, frozen bloodworm or newborn mouse pup or similar, especially for frogs with weight loss, or noncompetitors. Western clawed frog xenopus tropicalis tropical fish. African clawed frogs xenopus laevis move overland between water. This genome encodes over 20,000 proteincoding genes, including orthologs of. The tropical clawed frog, xenopus tropicalis, is a relatively new model species being used in developmental biology and amphibian toxicology studies.
Techniques and probes for the study of xenopus tropicalis development. Natural mating and tadpole husbandry in the western clawed. Xenopus tropicalis as a model organism for genetics and. Finally we test whether jumping capacity is positively associated with burst swimming and terrestrial endurance capacity in both sexes. A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of shortbodied, tailless.
Xenopus tropicalis is an increasingly important animal model in a variety of biological research fields. Moreover, we test whether the morphological determinants of jumping performance are similar in the two sexes and whether jumping performance differs in the two sexes. Researchers are encouraged to deposit xenopus transgenic and mutant lines, xenopus in situ hybridization probes, xenopus specific antibodies and xenopus expression clones with the centre. Xenopus tropicalis oocytes as an advantageous model system for.
Xenopus tropicalis xtbs plasmid library central nervous system. By decoding the frog genome and comparing it to the human sequence, scientists hope to find new clues. Two species of xenopus are regularly used by biologists, xenopus laevis and xenopus tropicalis. Gene names for laevis homeologs are appended with l homeolog or s homeolog to distinguish the subgenome they are associated with. The zebrafish ortholog of trpv1 is required for heatinduced locomotion. Proteomes xenopus tropicalis western clawed frog silurana tropicalis all. Initial genetic screens have yielded unique and interesting phenotypes abudaya et al. Xenopus cdna libraries xenbase a xenopus laevis and.
A xenopus tropicalis male seems interested in making use of eggs laid by its 60millionyear relative sister xenopus laevis. This genome encodes more than 20,000 proteincoding genes, including orthologs of at least 1700 human disease. Xenopus development is a vital resource on the biology and development of these key model organisms, and will be a great tool to researchers using these frogs in various disciplines of biological science. Xenopus express has developed exclusive and complete xenopus diets through the years. E a unica especie do genero xenopus com um genoma diploide. See our new green shipping coolers xenopus 1 5654 merkel rd. African clawed frog xenopus laevis animals az animals. Their results demonstrate a novel role of par3 during neural crest. The western clawed frog xenopus tropicalis is an important model for vertebrate development that combines experimental advantages of the african clawed frog xenopus laevis with more tractable genetics. In this study, xenopus and zebrafish par3 was found to be located at the. Our analyses show that locomotion is thermally sensitive.
The procedures available for xenopus laevis can work well with xenopus tropicalis, and embryos of both species develop at similar rates according to the developmental staging system of nieuwkoop and faber. For example, xenopus was one of the five models highlighted at the nih nonmammalian models meeting in 1999. Xenopus is a genus of african frogs that are commonly known as the african clawed frogs. Axeldb a database focussing on gene expression in the frog xenopus laevis. Xdb is a web data catalogue of nibbnig xenopus laevis est project. Dispersal entails the individual movement between habitat patches, and as. The xenopus tropicalis orthologue of trpv3 is heat sensitive the.
Because of its large eggs, xenopus laevis the african clawed frog has become a popular model for studying embryo development and cell. At this time, the tail is being lost and locomotion by means of limbs is only just becoming established. Jumping performance in the highly aquatic frog, xenopus. We have previously demonstrated that the naturally occurring tol2 element from oryzias latipes efficiently integrates its corresponding nonautonomous transposable element into the genome of the diploid frog, xenopus tropicalis. Jan 31, 2001 for example, xenopus was one of the five models highlighted at the nih nonmammalian models meeting in 1999. Indeed, xenopus was the first vertebrate animal for which methods were developed to allow rapid analysis of gene function using misexpression by mrna injection. The african clawed frog is thought to have originated in. Its genome has been sequenced, making it a significant model organism for genetics that complements the related species xenopus laevis the african clawed frog, a widely used vertebrate model for. Defining a large set of full length clones from a xenopus tropicalis est project. Here we use the tropical clawed frog, xenopus tropicalis, as a model system to explore effects of temperature on locomotor performance. Pedros biomolecular research tools a collection of www links to information and services useful to molecular biologists.
Temperature dependence of locomotor performance in the tropical. In the former, xenopus laevis has led the way in identifying the mechanisms of early fate decisions, patterning of the basic vertebrate body plan, and early organogenesis. Xenopus tropicalis to be sequenced by birgit reinert. Jan 15, 2020 recently xenopus tropicalis has attracted increased attention as a model for developmental biology because it has a small diploid genome, unlike the african clawed frog xenopus laevis and other species in this genus. Xenopus embryos for in vivo studies of human disease gene function.
Apr 29, 2010 because of its large eggs, xenopus laevis the african clawed frog has become a popular model for studying embryo development and cell biology. Axolotls that are stressed may float, rub, roll, or dart about the tank. Recently xenopus tropicalis has attracted increased attention as a model for developmental biology because it has a small diploid genome, unlike the african clawed frog xenopus laevis and other species in. The african clawed frog is a large species of flat frog that is primarily found dwelling at the bottom of lakes and rivers. Download static data files here data updated for plates 2124, july 27th 2006. Genome evolution in the allotetraploid frog xenopus laevis. Its shorter generation time and diploid genome has facilitated a number of experimental approaches. One species of xenopus in particularthe african clawed frog xenopus laevisis considered the equivalent of the lab rat for amphibian studies. Written in the highly successful methods in molecular biology series. Both species are fully aquatic, and are easy to maintain in captivity. Introduction to xenopus xenbase a xenopus laevis and xenopus. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of. Husbandry of xenopus tropicalis portsmouth research portal.
Importance of xenopus tropicalis to biomedical and biological research xenopus laevis is a unique resource for two critical areas in vertebrate biology. Remobilization of tol2 transposons in xenopus tropicalis. Sick xenopus often float and are reluctant to dive green. The fulllength cdna of xenopus tropicalis trpv3 was cloned by. Atlas and red data book of the frogs of south africa, lesotho and swaziland. The class ii dna transposons are mobile genetic elements that move dna sequence from one position in the genome to another. Xenopus tropicalis genomics and tractable genetics combined with the unique experimental advantages of xenopus laevis and their distinctive phylogenetic position make them unique model systems for vertebrate embryonic development in the 21 st century. Migration, pipidae, terrestrial, locomotion, stamina, performance. Our analyses show that locomotion is thermally sensitive, as illustrated by significant effects of temperature on terrestrial exertion capacity time until exhaustion and aquatic burst speed maximal. The lowest capsaicin concentrations that elicited clear currents for all three x. The african clawed frog is also known as the platanna and has a number of very unique features that mean it is specially adapted to its habitat. African clawed frog african clawed frog classification and evolution. Xenopus embryos are large and easily manipulated, and moreover, thousands of embryos can be obtained in a single day.
Xenopus embryos have been remarkably productive models for developmental biologists for over 70 years 1, 2. There is growing evidence that contact inhibition of locomotion cil is essential for morphogenesis. Here we use the tropical clawed frog, xenopus tropicalis, as a model system to. An ontology for xenopus anatomy and development bmc. Here we presenta draft genome sequence assembly of x. The frogs xenopus laevis and xenopus silurana tropicalis are model systems that have produced a wealth of genetic, genomic, and developmental information. An african frog with small claws on its toes has leaped into the circle of animals whose genomes are being sequenced. Xenopus online resource xenopus resource centre exrc. The pipid frog xenopus tropicalis has emerged as a powerful new model system for combining genetic and genomic analysis of tetrapod development with robust embryological, molecular and biochemical assays.
Contributions in cell biology and biochemistry include seminal work on chromosome. In the former, xenopus laevis has led the way in identifying the mechanisms of early fate decisions, patterning of the basic vertebrate body plan. In the rapidly developing, diploid amphibian xenopus tropicalis, genetics can be married to the already. The first category is the need for genomic tools 1 3, the second is the development of the xenopus tropicalis system i v, and third the need for resource centers a c. The development of genetic strategies for the xenopus system, together with new genomic resources. The nih responded to the communitys recommendations by establishing the transnih xenopus initiative. Xenopus tropicalis is a unique resource for two critical areas in vertebrate biology. Xenopus, from basic biology to disease models in the genomic era abraham fainsod and sally moody are seeking contributions for a book to be published by taylor and francis crc press. Temperature dependence of locomotor performance in the.
In order to increase our understanding of reproductive maturation and the role of steroid hormones in x. The first category is the need for genomic tools 1 3, the second is the development of the xenopus tropicalis system i. Overland movement in african clawed frogs xenopus laevis. Experimental systems of xenopus tropicalis will pave the way for a. Overland movement in african clawed frogs xenopus laevis ncbi. Research article temperature dependence of locomotor. Attitude, posture, equilibrium especially if in water, locomotion, body color, respiration, and behavior should be noted. Silurana tropicalis least concern downloaded on 25 june 2008. It is the only species in the genus xenopus to have a diploid genome. Mariana louza, usa see more here xenopus 1 sponsors 2012 cold spring. Xenopus genetic divergence, xenopus laevis, xenopus tropicalis silurana tropicalis laboratory lines received 4 march 2010 accepted 21 april 2010. The two bestknown species of this genus are xenopus laevis and xenopus tropicalis, which are commonly studied as model organisms for developmental biology. Using tractable organisms model systems to answer fundamental questions in medicine and biology is a common practice since the ancient years.
An overview of using xenopus laevis as a model system. Reproductive maturation of the tropical clawed frog. The routine generation and successful husbandry of tadpoles is essential for investigators using the western clawed frog xenopus tropicalis for developmental and genetic studies. The 18th international xenopus conference at the european xenopus resource center exrc has been postponed to august 1519, 2021 at portsmouth uk. The european xenopus resource centre exrc is funded by the wellcome trust, bbsrc and nc3rs to support researchers using xenopus models. Procurement and microinjection of xenopus tropicalis oocytes female adult x. It supports curation and queries of gene expression data in xenbase and is designed to facilitate crosstaxa comparisons. Xenopus tropicalis oocytes as an advantageous model. Here we present a draft genome sequence assembly of x.
This is the first amphibian genome to be sequenced, enabling new insights into vertebrate evolution and. When there is no human ortholog of a new xenopus gene or when the human gene name is provisional, new gene names will be based on consultations with the hgnc, the. Genetic map of xenopus tropicalis jamie davies the kidney development database. A controlled, structured vocabulary for xenopus anatomy and. Importance of xenopus tropicalis to biomedical and. Here we presenta draft genome sequence assembly of. It is a diploid relative of xenopus laevis, a frog that has found many uses in laboratories throughout the world.
Xenopus tropicalis eggs were fertilized, dejellied, and then zygotes or 2cell stage embryos were injected with 500 pg cas9 mrna, 150 pg sgrna, and 400 pg mcherry in 2 nl using a picospritzer iii parker hanaffin corp. The western clawed frog xenopus tropicalis is a species of frog in the family pipidae, also known as tropical clawed frog. Xenopus laevis tadpoles have been used as a simple vertebrate model. Please communicate your interest to them by may 15, 2020 and prepare to submit your contributions by january 2021. Sequencing and analysis of 10,967 fulllength cdna clones from xenopus laevis and xenopus tropicalis reveals posttetraploidization transcriptome remodeling.
Glucocorticoid receptor is required for survival through. Formulated to our rigid specifications to provide laboratories and hobbyists with premium grade african clawed frog food. Xenopus tropicalis western clawed frog silurana tropicalis. A xenopus tropicalis genome project advisory board was set up to insure an accurate and timely exchange of information between the jgi and the research community. In order to utilize the advantages of both xenopus laevis and tropicalis, we the xenopus community have set up three categories of recommendations. Behavioral observation of xenopus tadpole swimming for. Finalist for the national book award jacqueline woodson is the 20182019 national ambassador for young. Xenopus tropicalis wikipedia, a enciclopedia livre. The western clawed frog xenopus tropicalis also known to tropical fish keeping enthusiasts as the tropical clawed frog inhabits the tropical and subtropical rain forests of western africa from senegal to cameroon and eastern zaire where it inhabits slow moving rivers, streams, swamps, freshwater lakes, marshes, ponds, canals, and ditches throughout their range.134 1633 206 581 427 1499 1054 1498 1429 176 1079 1405 1308 270 1576 544 1142 883 581 122 48 677 120 808 880 739 1356 413 207